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## Orders of accumulation of entropy structures

Kevin McGoff gave a talk at Orsay on his work on the theory of entropy srtuctures and symbolic extensions. This theory was founded by Mike Boyle and Tomasz Downarowicz, among others.

This theory relates the continuity properties of the measure-theoretic entropy function with the existence of symbolic topological extensions with measure-theoretic entropies as close as possible to those of the initial system. This theory ascribes to any topological dynamical system an order of accumulation. M. Boyle and T. Downarowicz have shown that this is a countable ordinal.

David Burguet and K. McGoff have shown that any countable ordinal can be achieved by some topological dynamics. The proof relies on a realization theorem of T. Downarowicz and S. Serafin.

K. McGoff explained how he was able, by a more precise and direct construction to achieve the same on any prescribed compact manifold. The transformation can be chosen to be homeomorphic if the dimension is 2 or more.

## C^2 surface diffeomorphisms always have a symbolic extension

Most of topological dynamics studies systems of the form $T:X\to X$ where $T$ is a continuous self-map and $X$ is a compact metric space. One approach is to “reduce” such systems to symbolic dynamical system, i.e., $\sigma:S\to X$ where $S$ is a closed subset of $\{1,\dots,d\}^{\mathbb Z}$ and $\sigma((x_n)_{n\in\mathbb Z})=(x_{n+1})_{n\in\mathbb Z}$ such that $\sigma(S)=S$.

J. Auslander asked about the obstructions for a topological system $T:X\to X$ to have a symbolic extension, i.e., a symbolic system $\sigma:S\to S$ and a continuous surjection $\pi:S\to X$ commuting with the dynamics: $\pi\circ\sigma =T\circ\pi$. There is an obvious one: a symbolic system (and therefore its topological factors) has finite topological entropy. Is there any other?

M. Boyle showed that this was indeed the case. With D. Fiebig and U. Fiebig, he showed that asymptotically h-expansive systems (including $C^\infty$ self-maps of compact manifolds by a result of mine based on Yomdin’s theory) always have a “nice” symbolic extension. T. Downarowicz and S. Newhouse showed that generic $C^1$ map have no symbolic extension whatever, leaving open the question of diffeomorphisms with finite smoothness.

T. Downarowicz and A. Maas showed that $C^r$ interval maps also always have symbolic extensions for $1.

David BURGUET has finally proved the same for arbitrary $C^2$ surface diffeomorphisms, see his preprint here.

Behind these works there is a rich and beautiful topological/ergodic/functional-analytical theory of entropy (called the entropy structure by T. Downarowicz) which does yet have the audience it deserves, in my opinion.